Divine substance : Chronicle of Invitation to Life Volume 3

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  1. Chapter 2.
  2. Divine Substance: Chronicle of an Invitation to Life - Volume 3
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Appel, A. An interview with Nabokov. Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature , 8 , — Arnheim, R. Visual thinking. Art and visual perception. A psychology of the creative eye. Aveni, A. Conversing with the planets. How science and myth invented the cosmos. Baltrusaitis, J. An essay on the legend of forms. Barber, E. When they severed earth from sky. How the human mind shapes myth. Benfey, O. J ournal of Chemical Education, 3 5, 21— Benvenuti, A.

A beautiful confluence: Sci- ence and religion as modes of human participation in the cosmos. Bloom, A. The republic of Plato 2nd ed. Boorstin, D. The discoverers. Botha, R. The pre- history of language. Breuil, H. Four hundred centuries of cave art Boyle, M. London, UK: Zwemmer. Bronowski, J. The origins of knowledge and imagination.

Callender, C. Do mereological sums constitute objects? Questions like this are hotly debated in contemporary metaphysics — Yet such questions seem utterly disconnected from science. Has metaphysics gone in the wrong direction? Online video discussion, posted on September 8, Clottes, J. World rock art. Devlin, K. Goodbye Descartes. The end of logic and the search for a new cosmology of the mind.

Doczi, G. The power of limits. Proportional harmonies in nature, art, and architecture. Dorter, K. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism , 32 1 , 65— Elgin, C. Between the absolute and the arbitrary. Freedberg, D. The power of images. Studies in the history and theory of response. Freely, J. How Greek science came to Europe through the Islamic world. Gleick, J.

Chaos: Making a new science.

Chapter 2.

Gleiser, M. The dancing universe. From creation myths to the Big Bang. Gombrich, E. Art and illusion. A study in the psychology of pictorial representation. Greenough, S. On the art of fixing a shadow. One hundred and fifty years of photography. Guthrie, R. The nature of paleolithic art. Habgood, J. Religion and science. Hammond, J. The camera obscura. A chronicle. Hemenway, P. Divine proportion. Huntley, H. The divine proportion. A study in mathematical beauty. Jaccard, J. Jung, C.

Man and his symbols. The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Collected works of C. Jung 2nd ed. Kant, I. The critique of judgment. Meredith, Trans. Kappraff, J. The geometric bridge between art and science. Kemp, M. The nature book of art and science. Koestler, A.

Divine Substance: Chronicle of an Invitation to Life - Volume 3

The act of creation. Kubler, G. The shape of time. Remarks on the history of things. Leshan, L. Physical reality and beyond. Lewis-Williams, J. The mind in the cave. The signs of all times: Entoptic phenomena in up- per paleolithic art. Current Anthropology , 29 2 , — Mackay, A. The harvest of a quiet eye.

A selection of scientific quotations. Margenau, H. Cosmos, bios, theos: Scientists reflect on science, god, and the origins of the universe, life, and homo sapiens. Miller, A. Insights of genius. Imagery and creativity in science and art. Mithen, S. The prehistory of the mind. The cognitive origins of art, religion and science. Morris, B. Religion and anthropology: A critical introduction. Newhall, B.

The history of photography. Orland, T. The view from the studio door. How artists find their way in an uncertain world. Polyani, M. Science, faith and society. Praetorius, D. New zodiac sign dates: Ophiuchus the 13th sign? The Huffington Post. Richter, J. The notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci Vol. Robin, H. The scientific image. From cave to computer. New York, NY: W.

Freeman and Company, by arrangement with Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Schlain, L. Parallel visions in space, time, and light. M y view of the world. Snow, C. The two cultures. The two cultures: And a second look. Staguhn, G. Physics, religion and the cosmos. Tarnas, R. Cosmos and psyche. Intima- tions of a new world view. This article's emphasis on the importance of the Ophel hill as the main built-up area in the Persian and Early Hellenistic period is unique in present archaeological and historical research of ancient Jerusalem. The language of the book of Qohelet has both intrigued and frustrated generations of scholars due to its abundant orthographic, morphological, syntactic, and lexical peculiarities.

The independent subject pronoun is variously described as pleonastic, a strategy for emphasizing the subject, and a strategy for marking an important narrative point. However, none of these descriptions accurately describe its use in the book, and so in this essay I will address the syntax and function of Qohelet's use of the first-person subject pronouns.

Nadav Na'aman's recent dating of the Deuteronomic Law by social history is methodologically seminal, even if I disagree with the substance of his argument. Six complete alphabetic acrostics structure the first chapters of the book of Lamentations. Midrash Eikhah Rabbah suggests that there are seven acrostics. In the footsteps of Siegfried Bergler and of Azriel Rosenfeld, this article identified another four letters of the puzzle. This paper explores the ascription of physical disability as one of a number of stigmatizing strategies used by biblical writers to denigrate iconic worship.

However, the existence of such translations did not guarantee that scholars, especially church historians and historians of the Reformation took such Bible translations seriously. Luther himself had claimed polemically that the Bible had been entirely unknown and unavailable when he was a young man. The rather dispassionate scholarship of the eighteenth century, which included important works on pre-Reformation German Bibles by orthodox Lutheran divines, gave way in the second half of the nineteenth century to a rather bitter polemical discourse in the context of the Kulturkampf in Germany.

Luther the linguistic genius and Luther the theological hero were the protagonists on one side; the late medieval Bible, on which Luther drew heavily for his own translation, was on the other. Not so much a Catholic-Lutheran debate as an ideological one about the place, value and influence of medieval piety and culture and their relation to German national culture was played out by prominent church historians.

By the eve of WWII, German Bible scholarship had become a more clear-eyed exercise in historical evaluation--yet immediately after the war, in the context of the Cold War and the construction of a lineage of democratic and liberty-oriented values for Christian western Europe, the Luther Bible began to loom ever larger, especially in textbooks and general surveys, as a turning point in the history of western culture. Since the s, more specialized and careful assessments of the importance of pre-Reformation German Bibles have prevailed, perhaps as part of a general re-evaluation of medieval culture and piety from perspectives informed more by anthropology and literary theory than by ideological polemic.

These findings might shed light on the modes of history-writing in the contexts of both myth-making and source analysis. This study is an attempt to read Psalm 29 through the interpretive lens of insights taken from Czech structuralist and Russian Formalist literary theory. These two perspectives on literature share the theoretical perspective that a poetic work may be analyzed on the analogy of a structuralist approach to the study of a natural language.

The article advocates a reading of Psalm 29 in which its own internal structure—its own set Einstellung —expresses not so much what it means but how it means. It includes an introduction by the editor and two contributions, one by the editor and Matthew Forrest Lowe and another by Roland Boer, and concludes with a response by Steven Schweitzer. Literary approaches to the text have proposed that Samuel's entry into the story is a literary device designed to surprise the reader.

This paper demonstrates that Samuel's entrance into the narrative is not in isolation but is the culmination of suspense and anticipation built up throughout 1 Sam — This suspense is generated through a series of episodes which each consist of a pattern of anticipation, delay and resolution. The recognition of this structure of suspense allows for a reinterpretation of two anomalous verses within the narrative: the list of place names in and the editorial insertion of Jonah's use of various antecedent HB texts and its purported Neo-Assyrian setting are prominent hermeneutical signposts that are integral to the book.

Until now, however, the former question has not received sustained attention and the latter has been obscured by disagreement over the book's historical veracity. This paper broadens the scope of postcolonialist discussion by considering empire through the Israelite perspective that Jonah affords and through the Neo-Assyrian literature dealing with its conquest of nation-states in the first half of the first millennium BCE. Special attention is given to how Jonah the prophet and Jonah the book attribute different identities to the different groups that appear in the book and to the book's intertextual connections to other parts of the Hebrew Bible.

The paper closes by reflecting on ways that different means of identification entail different responses to power. Note: Readers of this article are encouraged to read first article 3 in this volume. The book of Jonah was probably written as a reaction to the negative view on foreign peoples found in Joel The writer of the book of Jonah builds his case upon the authoritative text from Exodus Both in terms of form and content, he is also inspired by the book of Nahum.

Therefore, the repeated use of Exodus —7 in these texts needs not be ascribed to a separate layer, but is probably part of a process of one book reacting to the other. But up to now the redactional relationship of these passages and their intention in the context of the book of the Twelve have only been defined inadequately. The article shows that the redaction responsible for the final redactional stage of the book of Jonah and for the integration of this book into the book of the Twelve, is also responsible for Joel —14; Mic —20; Nah b, 3a; Mal a.

Because of this redaction the Book of the Twelve can be read as a reflection on the conditions, the theological reasons and the limits of divine forgiveness. Ehud Ben Zvi's claim, in the preceding article, that the final verse of Jonah must be read both as a question and an affirmation is welcomed.

Yet, it is argued here that reading a rhetorical question contributes little to the metaprophetic character of Jonah. In fact, a final rhetorical question destroys the open-endedness of the book while YHWH's unambiguous affirmation that he will show no pity for Nineveh faces readers with a deeper meaning of prophecy.

Like the Elohim in chapter 3, Jonah in chapter 4 is invited to come out of the circle of anger. Destructions and reversals of fortune occur, but humans are not privy to the divine council. The present study reaffirms the double ending, and above all, double reading of the book of Jonah. This double reading contributed much to the metaprophetic character of the book of Jonah, by which I mean, a book that—within the discourse of the relevant historical literati—provided a key for, and reflected an understanding of prophetic literature.

The first part of this article reviews significant scholarly contributions on the Book of Jonah for the last ten years. Perry demonstrates that exegesis of Jonah has entered a very fruitful period, free of the anti-Jewish biases characteristic of earlier readings and armed with more information about post-exilic Judah than ever before. Next, the article looks at God's reference to the animals in Jon and reads it as an expression of God's desire for the newly submissive Ninevites to offer sacrifice to him, as the sailors do in and Jonah vows in Thus God is portrayed, like many ancient Near Eastern potentates, as extending his rule over peoples and exacting tribute.

As per title, an introduction to the following six articles that deal with the Book of Jonah. All but the final essay in the series reflect issues hotly debated at the conference of the European Association of Biblical Studies at Lisbon in August The final essay article 9 in this volume of JHS is based on a paper presented at the Society of Biblical Literature conference at Boston in November The task of reconstructing the religious history of Israel can only be accomplished incrementally.

Regarding methodology, if one chooses to engage the complexities of, say, the Israelite priesthood, synchronic analysis alone does not reveal its stages of development. Meticulous redactional analysis moreover exposes only aspects or phases of the sophisticated historiographies of the major writers in the preexilic, exilic, and postexilic periods and their grand schemas.

One method of penetrating the pretense of uniformity is to approach the material through the use of analogy. The Levite in many instances locates professionally and socially between elite priests living in larger cities and populace living in residential towns and villages.

It is the itinerant, often times prophetically-infused Levite who, while maintaining the most contact with the general population, must at the same time maintain a viable connection with central authorities. Because his situation often necessitates collaboration with laity of dubious lineage, the Levite's priestly power turns out to be one that empowers. It is claimed that on this basis scholars are able to date the composition of biblical books by analysis of their language. This is demonstrated by the language of the Qumran Pesher-commentary on the biblical book of Habakkuk.

The article discusses the location of the city of Shaaraim mentioned in Josh and 1 Sam It first argues that its proposed identification with Khirbet Qeiyafa, north of the Elah Valley is mistaken.

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Then it argues that Shaaraim is located on the main road that led from the Valley of Elah to the city of Gath. Building on Bill's Arnold's thesis that the presence of Aramaic in Ezra presents a shift in perspective to an external point of view, Joshua Berman has theorized that Ezra — presents a narrator who is speaking from a gentile point of view as opposed to a Judean voice for the Hebrew that precedes and follows this Aramaic section. However, Berman's thesis does not account for all of the narration in this Aramaic text.

The narrative verses that link the individual letters in this section indicate that the controlling voice for the overall narration is pro-Judean. These verses employ the Judeo-centric language and demonstrate that the author had a Judean source for much of the information he presents. Moreover, the narrative that connects the letters demonstrates the narrator's knowledge of the Judean prophets, their names, patronymics and office as prophets ; , revealing his Judean perspective.

Ultimately, this narrator reveals his viewpoint by placing the command of God next to the decrees of Persian kings Thus, Ezra — is a single literary creation, a document that is the result of an archival search and is designed to persuade the reader that the Judeans ought to be allowed to build in Jerusalem.

Khirbet Qeiyafa is a 2. This is a key strategic location in the biblical kingdom of Judah, on the main road from Philistia and the Coastal Plain to Jerusalem and Hebron in the hill country. It is the only site in the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel with two gates. It is located near the Elah valley, associated with King David twice, and not mentioned in conjunction with any other later First Temple period tradition. This accords with the archaeological and radiometric data that indicate a single-phase settlement in the early 10th century BCE at Khirbet Qeiyafa.

This article discusses the identity of the recently excavated stronghold of Khirbet Qeiyafa, a tenth century BCE site located near the Valley of Elah, in the area where the story of the battle between David and Goliath takes place. There is also the story of a battle between Elhanan the Bethlehemite and Goliath of Gath that takes place at Gob 2 Sam In light of a comparison of the two episodes I suggest identifying Khirbet Qeiyafa with biblical Gob.

A close reading of the four anecdotes related in 2 Sam —22 clarifies the message of the early biblical tradition of four battles fought between Israelite and Philistine elite warriors that culminated in the advance of the Israelite troops to the gates of Philistine Gath. A close reading of Psalm , with special attention paid both to the words out of which the poem is literally made and to what happens in between and beyond those words, as well as what emerges because of them.

This article explores the Temple ideology that characterizes the book of Haggai and its innovative features. It explains Haggai's new approach in terms of the particular situation of the period, including its geo-political circumstances and its implications for theological thinking in ancient Israel. This essay reconsiders Louis Feldman's assertion that Josephus characterized Saul as a king who administered justice. This assertion is examined against the narratives in 1 Samuel 14 and My conclusion is that Josephus did not praise Saul for being a just king.

In this regard, his characterization of Saul is consistent with the biblical narratives in 1 Samuel 14 and 22, which denounce Saul for being a negative model of the king as supreme judge. Leviticus 19 was constructed as a true table consisting of two columns and five rows. The columns are inverted parallels; one is ordered from positive to negative and the other from negative to positive.

The rows are ordered according to the degree of God's connection to the specific laws. The five by two table is based on the author's reading of the Exodus 20 Decalogue as five consecutive pairs according to the division into ten Words that appears in the MT. This article approaches the characterization of the heroine in Esther —20 from three perspectives: her status prior to her meeting with the king; her status after meeting with the king; and a literary analogy between her and Ahasuerus.

This article deals with how, in texts inside and outside the Torah, Moses became a figure of identification for the different Jewish Diasporas during the Persian Period The following themes are investigated: 1. The Shared Figure of Moses and the Pentateuch; 2. The death of Moses outside the land; 3. Moses, the magician; 4. Moses, the leprous; 5. Moses and the foreign women; 6. Moses, the warrior.

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The book has its truth to tell, the truth of its metaphors and viewpoint. This article argues that any action performed by an individual or group can only be properly understood in the context of the larger range of similar activity performed by the individual or group. It builds on Mary Douglas's syntagmatic structural analysis of action within such a broad context and moves to Catherine Bell's similar contextualization of ritualization within a larger framework of action.

This type of analysis allows for formulating a clearer definition of ritual and a more precise identification of the strategies employed to create ritual. It also provides a method for the study of ritual, in which any given performance may be evaluated by its relationship to other similar actions, including non-ritual actions. As an example, the paper looks at the story of the feast held by Joseph for his brothers in Genesis 43 and suggests how this may be used for elucidating the understanding of biblical sacrifice.


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The article deals with some of the theses advanced in Mary Douglas's later works In the Wilderness, Leviticus as Literature, and Jacob's Tears , and in particular with her claim that magic and divination were outlawed in the priestly conceptions of the reformed religion of Israel. Her position here relates to her basic thesis that the priestly writings promoted a renewed religion more abstract, more orderly, and more fully theorized than the religions in the Israelite ancient Near Eastern environment. I show that the transformation of Israelite religion in the exilic-post-exilic period was less radical and that the concept of monotheism had no effect on certain ritual practices that could be considered magic, because their concept was in essence theistic.

Several examples of fruitful elaboration of the paradigm by biblical scholars are considered in some detail. In addition, the author suggests some ways in which the paradigm might be modified in order to explain better the biblical data concerning physical wholeness. The present paper addresses the question of the surprising presence in Leviticus 19 of two sacrificial regulations among mainly moral commandments. It attempts to show that far from being out of place these laws sum up the ethic imposed on Israelites in two main principles: the principle of restraint when dealing with fellow countrymen and the principle of absence of all contact with spiritual beings other than God.

I then situate her work on the Hebrew Bible within this larger perspective, using her analysis of the abominable pig as an exemplary instance. An introduction to the following five articles that engage Douglas's studies of the Hebrew Bible from a variety of perspectives and on a variety of topics. The present article seeks to define the literary genre of the Elisha cycle of stories. Various possibilities raised in current research are examined and rejected. They are not polemic stories directed against Baal Worship, narratives designed to glorify the institution of prophecy, social religious satire against the royal house, polemics against the House of Omri, or didactic salvation stories.

Neither do they contain criticism towards Elisha. Rather, the Elisha cycle in toto constitutes the oldest example in Jewish literature of hagiographic stories. All the stories including the longer ones, in some of which modern scholarship tends to find a vein of criticism directed against Elisha express adoration for the holy man of God—Elisha, the miracle worker. In this essay I approach the story of Elisha and the miraculous jar of oil 2 Kgs —7 through a close reading and attention to its literary genre — hagiography.

The widow's attitude toward Elisha, the miracle that Elisha performs for her, the contrast built up between Elisha and Elijah, and the parallels between Elisha and the Lord all emphasize what makes Elisha a unique figure in the Bible. Unlike other prophets, he is not described as a messenger-prophet. Instead, he is a holy man of God, endowed with supernatural powers that he uses to work miraculous deliverances for individuals and the community.

The application of linguistics to Biblical Hebrew grammar, particularly its verbal system, has continued in recent decades, while at the same time there has been an marked increase in the number of elementary Hebrew grammars. Sadly, few of these grammars appear to take into account the advances of the last century in the understanding of the Hebrew verbal system. In this article I examine the disconnect between scholarly discussions and elementary grammars with respect to the Hebrew vav-prefixed forms and illustrate how these forms might be explained to beginning Biblical Hebrew students in a way that takes into account recent linguistic insights.

The present article is the first ever written on this body. Version with images hypertext version. Specifically, this noun variously signals three related nuances: membership or participation; representation as exemplar; and representation on behalf of others.

There are substantially fewer mss. Moreover, none of the mss. The formation of a single collection including the twelve prophetic books is later than often claimed, and the question of whether the anthology of the XII originated in Jerusalem or Alexandria remains open. Many studies on the formation of the collection of the Twelve Minor Prophets take for granted that the 4QXIIa manuscript provides evidence that the Book of Jonah stood at the end of a scroll of the Twelve and that this sequence could have been the original one. Examination of the reconstruction of the scroll published in the DJD XV volume reveals that the Malachi-Jonah sequence is highly hypothetical and should not be considered as firm evidence.

It includes an introduction by the editor and contributions by Philip R. The troublesome reign of Ishbosheth comes to a graphic conclusion when he is assassinated — audaciously, at midday while reclining on a couch in his own house — by two of his own captains, the brothers Rechab and Baanah. That Ishbosheth is assassinated while sleeping in his house at high noon there is no doubt: the guilty confess, are charged, and duly executed. But the puzzle is how exactly the murder takes place — and this is subject of my analysis — as there are significant discrepancies between the Hebrew and Greek texts.

I then move toward a conclusion by summarizing the key differences between the MT and LXX in this passage and discussing some of the literary implications that emerge when these textual trajectories are compared. As a witness to the murder, the LXX provides an exciting and compelling testimony, but the MT account features several important details that cannot be ignored in light of the larger storyline. This conversation with Jacob L. It includes an introduction by the editor and contributions by Deirdre N. Fulton, David M. Carr, Ralph W.

Klein and a response by Jacob L. The present analysis of Haggai —11 points at a sophisticated structure that differs at some points from those widely accepted. In addition, while some scholars explain the complexity of the passage as a composite process of formation, this paper has shown a well structured sermon designed to influence an adversary audience. The first part of the prophet's words 1: 4—6 is meant to demonstrate to the people their erroneous approach. The second part —9 intends to show the people the right way.

The last part of Haggai's words —11 construes the economic stress in terms of the covenantal relationship between God and Yehud that continues to play a central role, as in the pre-destruction period. The conversation represented here originated in a special session at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Jewish Studies that dealt with the issue of the shifting role of scribes leading up to and following the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in BCE. The essays situate all scribal groups in relation to the nation's priestly tradition and circles, address diverse matters of socio-political agenda, and identify trends in the development of literary methodology.

This conversation includes an introduction by the editor, and contributions by M. Leuchter, Jacob L. Wright, Jeffrey C. Geoghegan, and Lauren A. In two recent articles and in his book, The Edited Bible, Van Seters challenged the existence of a redactor in antiquity and the subsequent development of redaction criticism as a viable method in biblical literary criticism. This debate between whether a source of the Pentateuch, such as J, or the writer of the Deuteronomistic History should be understood as author or editor is reflected in the responses to Van Seters by Jean-Louis Ska, Eckart Otto and Christoph Levin.

In this essay Van Seters seeks to answer the various points raised by these scholars and to clarify what is meant by an ancient author as well as the view that the concept of editor is anachronistic before the modern period. He also defends his view that both von Rad and Noth, in the case of J, and Noth, in the case of Dtr, believed that the Yahwist and Dtr were authors and historians and not merely editors. In later times, God's abode in the Temple or Jerusalem completely displaced God's desert abode, relegating it to evil forces as was the belief in Near-Eastern cultures.

This conversation with Melody D. Fulton, David Janzen, Ralph W. Klein and a response by Melody D. This essay seeks the underlying worldview of the Song of Songs. It does so in three steps. Firstly, over against the widespread assumption that the metaphors of the Song of Songs refer to human erotic love, or indeed the older assumption that they are allegories for the relations between God and Israel, or God and the Church, this article asks what happens when we break such metaphoric connections.

In other words, what happens if we take the metaphors at face value? Secondly, once the metaphors are freed from their links with human erotic love, they take on a life of their own, one of fecund and fertile nature. The third step involves an exploration of what the worldview of such a fecund nature might be. My suggestion is that it may be understood as a utopian element — nature producing freely and of its own accord — of what I call the sacred economy. Though Woman Wisdom has often been viewed as a positive figure for feminism, I will show that the picture is much grimmer.

The article has two parts. First, I will demonstrate that the personification of wisdom reinscribes the typical ideology of the time along gender, social class, and racial lines. The eroticization of wisdom as female actually excludes the woman from the search for truth and knowledge because it assumes its adherents are male. Woman Wisdom is shown to be upper class, while Folly is poor. And Woman Wisdom is shown to be xenophobic in her preference for Jewish boys. The boundary between the two begins to blur. The first, focuses on alliteration, or the repeated use of consonants.

The second section collects examples of assonance, or the repeated use of vowel patterns. The third section focuses on illustrations of polysemy; cases in which words bear more than one meaning in a single context. The fourth section, which is related to polysemy, details cases of antanaclasis. Antanaclasis occurs when a word is used multiple times, but with different meanings.

In the fifth section, I provide examples of allusive punning, i. The sixth section is devoted to instances of numerical punning. After providing the data for each of these devices, I offer some general observations on punning in Qoheleth. According to TB Yoma 21b, the urim and the thummim and the spirit of prophecy were among the things missing from the Second Temple. According to Ezra —63 Neh. Josephus suggests, however, that the urim and thummim stopped shining, that is they ceased to function, only around BCE, about the time of John Hyrcanus' death.

According to Josephus, then, second temple high priests consulted urim and thummim. To decide between these two claims, we examine second temple texts dated to the period before Hyrcanus' death. These texts confirm Josephus and suggest that the contemporary high priest may have used urim and thummim as an oracular device.

This conversation with O. Knoppers, Hugh G. Williamson and a response by Oded Lipschits. None of the various scenarios that could explain its disappearance can also serve to explain why it remained hidden for so long, only to be discovered at just the right moment to provide a willing Josiah with the justification to begin a cultic reform program. With the increasing maturation of the linguistic analysis of ancient Hebrew, it becomes increasingly important that we keep in mind the inherent challenges of analyzing no-longer-spoken languages, like ancient Hebrew.

In this article I address a number of such issues in the hopes of provoking some fruitful discussion. First, I address the distinction between linguistic analysis and philological analysis. Because of the similar dating system in the books of Haggai and Zechariah, since the end of the 19th century it has been proposed that these two books once formed an independent collection: the Haggai-Zechariah corpus. But neither the formation nor the intention of this corpus has been adequately explained. Then the article shows that the Haggai-Zechariah corpus can be understood as a reaction to the decreasing hope for divine salvation in the fifth century.

In the light of, and despite the negative experiences that characterize this period, the Haggai-Zechariah corpus adheres to the promises of the early pre-exilic prophecy. But in order to adhere to these promises, the conditions for their fulfillment had to be re defined. Giving special attention to the blood manipulation component of the ritual complex Num , this paper explores a variety of theoretical questions about the interpretation of ritual activity represented in biblical ritual texts.

It highlights the significance of the textuality of our access to biblical ritual, the need to fill gaps while interpreting biblical ritual texts, and points to the value of considering the indexical qualities of ritual actions. Greek tradition does not provide consistent and reliable evidence that an unusual inundation contributed to the fall of Nineveh. The Babylonian chronicles do not mention such an extraordinary event nor have archaeological excavations at Nineveh produced any evidence in support of such notion.

Nineveh's topography precludes the possibility of significant flooding by the Khosr canal. The various verses in Nahum that have been construed as supporting flooding in Nineveh find a reasonable figurative interpretation within a contextual scheme that does not involve flooding. The notion that Nineveh was captured through flooding should be discarded. Words not only reproduce reality, they produce it to us. Moreover, he compared language as parole to a game that can be fully understood only by those who know its rules language as langue.

These rules are radically linked to the actual practice of the game. The article concludes with a reminder to exegetes and theologians that they should refrain from assuming beforehand that if a term is repeatedly read in, read out or recited in a text, it must always mean the same within the text itself or, for that matter, in the plane of interaction between text and the exegete or theologian. Most scholars attribute these problems to errors in transmission and try to solve them through textual emendation.

We argue that these disruptions are an original feature of these psalms and are placed purposefully as part of a sophisticated literary structure. Reviews and responses to John J. Was the biblical lex talionis to be applied by equal retribution or in a figurative sense? What was its origin? How or for what purpose was the lex talionis practiced in ancient Israelite life? This article argues that lex talionis in Exod —25 should be understood figuratively in the ancient village life context and that the development of the lex talionis should be understood as a complex process, depending on the corresponding social, economic structure of the time.

Comparative considerations between the lex talionis in Exod —25 and other relevant ANE texts are advanced. Textual and thematic evidence indicates that the Prologue and Epilogue in Job are an elaboration of an ancient core story of hope. The elaboration and expansion of the core story are intended to provide a setting for presenting a range of positions on personal retribution.

An attempt is made to glean the ancient core story from the MT. Long considered derivative and hopelessly ideological, the book of Chronicles is re-engaging the scholarly community, as noted by a recent spate of articles and commentaries. This article presents a panel discussion on two of these commentaries written by Steven L. McKenzie and Gary N. The original discussion was held in Philadelphia Nov. In addition, this article includes a review of Knoppers' commentary by Christine Mitchell.

This article focuses on the role of Yael in Judges 4. It argues that Yael's central position in the narrative is meant to shed light on Deborah's prophetic image. Yael overshadows both Sisera and Barak. She controls both men; she decides who will be defeated and who will be victorious. Deborah's prophecy does not refer merely to the identity of the killer but also to the way in which the woman achieves her victory.

Yael confronts a strong warrior, a general; physically she is inferior to him; she uses her femininity to defeat him. Before a packed room at the high school gym in Dillingham, Alaska, audience members seated on folding chairs and bleachers got up one by one to offer testimony to visiting representatives of the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA.

The EPA had come to this community of 2, people in the southwest Alaskan region of Bristol Bay, a remote area known for its robust wild salmon fisheries, to solicit public comment on its proposal to block the development of a controversial proposed mine, the Pebble Mine. Authored by EPA officials and independent consultants, the Watershed Assessment draws heavily on existing scientific research along with extensive public input.

The study incorporated vehicles for public engagement at nearly every stage, including multiple rounds of public hearings, comment periods on report drafts, and dozens of meetings by EPA officials with key stakeholders in Bristol Bay communities, Anchorage, Seattle, and Washington, D.

The EPA's participatory process received a strong positive response from many people in Bristol Bay, even from some who were not wholly supportive of the agency's involvement in the Pebble issue to begin with, making it an especially fitting case for examination. By the time of the hearing in the Dillingham gym, such consultative exercises were a familiar ritual in Bristol Bay.

Structured through a series of probabilistic risk scenarios, the Watershed Assessment's final report presents a worrying picture of prospective mining impacts. Its images of toxic tailings breaches, acid mine drainage, and contaminated water tables reappeared frequently in public testimony. Many Bristol Bay residents referenced calculations found in the Watershed Assessment to spell disaster for a vibrant watershed should the Pebble Mine go forward.

Others probed these details to contest forecasts of destruction. On either side of the debate, those presenting public comments underscored the implications for the region's people, most of whom identify as Alaska Native. Testimony from the public hearings provides a sense of how the prospective mine takes shape as a risk through modes of participation that are characteristic of environmental governance today.

In this paper, I examine the public process surrounding the risk assessment in Bristol Bay to analyse how visions of ecological imperilment come into being, and how they influence environmental politics in the present. What does invoking the future through forecasts of harm mean for the people and places that are positioned as threatened? How do mechanisms of public participation affect the formation of disaster prognoses given the negotiation of different forms of knowledge and authority they entail? As the Pebble debate has intensified over the past decade, it has come to hinge ever more prominently on scientific analyses of risk that are not simply communicated to the public but are actually formed through public engagement.

Bristol Bay residents have been called upon to put forth their views and visions, though typically with reference to the parameters that structure scientific risk assessment. This persistent feature of the participatory project raises questions about the extent to which efforts to engage laypersons on issues of risk, however well intentioned and successfully executed, offer genuine opportunities for negotiating different modes of knowledge and authority to arrive at outcomes that are not already predetermined by expert designs. My analysis demonstrates that while the public process initiated by the EPA succeeds in opening the production of scientific knowledge to a wider set of actors than typically play a role in its making, it also reinscribes the validity of some forms of authority over others and limits the political possibilities of certain spokespersons.

To account for these findings, I take up Brian Wynne's ; suggestion that the idiom of risk itself imposes a reductive frame. As laypersons from Bristol Bay and beyond come to couch their concerns in scientific registers of risk, these configure and at times constrain what they are able to express. My central contribution lies in understanding how these generative effects arise amid clear constraints, outcomes I locate in the tensions that ensue as everyday experiences fail to conform to the tightly circumscribed parameters that make risk assessment possible.

Given the EPA's mandate, the Watershed Assessment establishes narrow frames for public participation and for the spatial, social, and temporal scope of the study — limiting it to the effects of mining on fisheries, for instance. My discussion draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted primarily from to in Bristol Bay communities and in the larger Alaskan city of Anchorage. The next section provides a fuller analysis of the literature on processes of risk assessment in participatory forums.

In the paper's remaining sections, I move through the social, spatial, and temporal frames that structure the study, analysing salient overflows to the parameters that determine who, what, and when is at issue. In each case, I show how neat boundaries are disrupted by the identities, perspectives, and relations fostered by public performances of risk assessment.

I conclude that despite the limitations of common formats of consultation and discourses of risk, the negotiation of multiple forms of knowledge and authority in the public view nevertheless opens new spaces and social formations for the exercise of politics. Public consultation is now the norm for environmental matters in democracies in the Global North Chilvers : In the United States, the EPA has been especially focused on incorporating participatory processes into its risk assessments, particularly in its dealings with Native American tribal governments. Recent work highlights how common instruments for facilitating participation often reinforce existing power relations, depoliticizing struggles by framing problems and procedures in technical terms see, e.

Li ; T. Li Studies show how participatory forums are disrupted and delegitimated as frustrated opponents of resource development schemes refuse to engage, staging protests outside public hearings F. Contestations seem to bubble up amid inclusionary efforts to pin down environmental impacts see, e. Li ; Mathews ; Reno ; Vaughn Given the persistent ways in which constraints upon participation are subject to overflows like these, tensions over knowledge and authority are likely to be manifest even within the most tightly organized public forums, and perhaps only more so.

Yet the foregrounding of risk in participatory forums today may contribute to reaffirming the very technocratic underpinnings that consultative initiatives are intended to transform. The problem with this, Wynne and others note, is that it prematurely forecloses the possible futures that might be envisioned through participatory activities. Wynne's point signals risks of another sort — risks for the practice of politics — embedded in the inclusive approaches to risk assessment currently in vogue. While the EPA's efforts in Bristol Bay help reinforce the authority of scientific expertise, the exchanges that take place within and alongside its forums of comingled knowledge do, at moments, express and transform the perspectives of those involved, at times in ways that animate new forms of political engagement.

This suggests that the politics of imperilment at work in Bristol Bay, like the politics of endangerment that Timothy Choy theorizes in Hong Kong 48 , can inspire outcomes that exceed the limiting confines of risk discourses. Uncollected leachates from waste rock piles and TSFs [tailings storage facilities] would elevate instream copper levels and cause direct effects on salmonids [fish of the salmon family] ranging from aversion and avoidance of the contaminated habitat to rapidly induced death of many or all fish … Rapidly induced death of many or all fish would occur in 12 km 7.

Copper would cause death or reduced reproduction of aquatic invertebrates in 21, 40 to 62, and 60 to 82 km 13, 25 to 38, and 37 to 51 miles of streams in the Pebble 0. Insofar as these forecasts turn a teeming abundance of natural resources into a site of acute vulnerability, they invert the usual sense of potentiality embedded in the notion of natural resources. Over more than a thousand pages, the Watershed Assessment synthesizes the current science on Bristol Bay, including voluminous baseline data collected by Pebble developers.

The report was revised based on this feedback. As a study, the Watershed Assessment clearly defines its scope of analysis. It considers several geographical scales, from the Bristol Bay watershed down to the mine footprint, where it examines three different scenarios that vary in the amount of ore processed and years of active mining, labelling them Pebble 0. It thus considers these other impacts only insofar as they are mediated by fish. The accompanying text describes these outcomes in pithy summaries that nevertheless build to vivid enactments of future disaster: Failure of the [TSF, or tailings storage facility] dam … would result in the release of a flood of tailings slurry into the North Fork Koktuli River.

Whereas Lakoff supposes that these are crafted in the absence of possibilities for quantitative risk assessments, such as in the case of flu pandemics, the EPA report shows that imaginative enactments can be woven into the substance of risk assessments themselves. Imaginative enactments may in fact prove a likely feature of such exercises, given that pinpointing risk always entails some form of prognostic work. Such enactments are not uncontested, of course. The stakes of such claims are high. By invoking findings like those outlined above, Pebble developers successfully lobbied the EPA to launch an internal investigation as to whether the agency inappropriately collaborated with Pebble opponents in developing the Watershed Assessment Demer In addition, they have pursued legal action to block the EPA's involvement.

Although some of these charges were dismissed, others are still playing out in the courts, essentially freezing the EPA's work in Bristol Bay Martinson